Attorney at Law

The golden years should ideally be a time of tranquility and fulfillment, not one marred by worry and vulnerability. Yet, as we age or face unexpected health challenges, the potential for cognitive decline and diminishing capacity to manage our affairs can become a stark reality. This decline can manifest in various ways: difficulties with basic activities of daily living like dressing or bathing, forgetfulness about crucial medical appointments, or financial issues such as unpaid bills piling up or losing money to scammers. For some, a stubborn refusal to consider assisted living despite needing it, or an insistence on sending money to online "boyfriends" who are merely exploiting their loneliness paints a heartbreaking picture of vulnerability.

In such situations, the question arises: how can we reconcile the fundamental right to autonomy with the need to protect those we love from harm? This is where the concept of guardianships step in, as they empower a ‘surrogate decision-maker’ to act in the best interests of an impaired or incapacitated person (the "ward") when they cannot do so themselves.

Before we begin, it should be noted that states employ differing terminology and specific legal frameworks for what are fundamentally similar concepts. For instance, what is called a "conservator" in one state might be referred to as a "guardian of the estate" or "financial guardian" in another. Similarly, procedural roles like "court visitor" or "court investigator" may have different titles across jurisdictions. As such, this guide is written to provide a comprehensive overview of common principles and considerations regarding these protective arrangements while still being mindful of the nuances in terminology and specific requirements that may apply in different jurisdictions. 

The first step in initiating a guardianship proceeding is filing a petition with the appropriate court in the county where the allegedly incapacitated person resides. Although anyone can express concern for another individual's well-being, not just anyone can initiate guardianship proceedings. Thus, courts will require that the petitioner to demonstrate a legitimate interest in the proposed ward's welfare, such as a family member, a close friend, or a concerned professional (such as the ward's attorney, physician, therapist, etc,) who has directly observed the proposed ward's declining capacity and believes that a guardianship is necessary to protect their interests. The petitions themselves must: 

  • Include the proposed ward's full legal name, date of birth, and current address (as well as information about their marital status, any dependents, and their closest living relatives). 
  • Describe the proposed ward's functional and cognitive limitations, detailing how these limitations impact their ability to make decisions (about their personal care, finances, or both). 
  • Provide evidence of the proposed ward's inability to manage their financial affairs. 
  • Address why least restrictive alternatives (LRAs) are not suitable for the proposed ward's situation.
  • Nominate a qualified individual or entity to serve as guardian, including information about their qualifications and willingness to assume this responsibility  (note that the petitioner and the proposed guardian need not be the same person. For instance, a concerned family member may initiate the proceedings, while a different family member or a professional fiduciary is nominated as a guardian).

Upon filing the petition, formal notice of the proceedings, including the date, time, and location of the hearing, must be served upon the proposed ward either by the court, the petitioner, or a neutral third party (depending on the jurisdiction). This notice informs the proposed ward of their right to contest the guardianship, allowing them to challenge the petitioner's claims and argue against the need for a guardian. 

Next, the court will appoint a Guardian ad Litem (GAL) and/or court visitor. The GAL, often an attorney or social worker, is tasked with representing the proposed ward's best interests. They conduct an independent investigation, interview relevant parties, and make recommendations to the court based on their findings. The proposed ward has the right to (and will likely want to) hire an attorney to represent their expressed wishes and preferences, even if these conflict with what others, including the GAL, believe is in their best interests. In some jurisdictions, a court visitor or investigator will be appointed to act as a neutral third party tasked with investigating the proposed ward's circumstances and reporting their findings to the court (while a court visitor’s/investigator’s roles can overlap with the duties of a GAL, a court visitor typically focuses on gathering information and assessing the situation rather than advocating for a specific outcome).

Next up is the court hearing, where the judge will consider evidence and arguments from both sides and make a decision. The standard of proof required for the approval of a guardianship petition by jurisdiction is generally some sort of variation of “clear and convincing evidence” showing that it is highly and substantially more likely than not that the individual is disabled, impaired, or incapacitated to such an extent that they need a guardian. The following table demonstrates the forms of evidence that the judge will consider for these purposes: 

Type of Guardianship Relevant Evidence Key Areas of Impairment Examples of Evidence
Guardianship of the Person Medical: Cognitive assessments, neuropsychological evaluations, psychiatric reports, medical records. Memory, judgment, decision-making, understanding consequences, ability to communicate needs, ADLs. Physician testimony, neurologist report, diagnosis of dementia or Alzheimer's, inability to bathe or dress independently, self-neglect.
Behavioral: Testimony from family, friends, caregivers, social workers. Daily functioning, self-care, social interactions, emotional well-being, vulnerability to abuse or exploitation. Witness statements detailing difficulties with managing medications, making appointments, isolation, changes in behavior, or signs of neglect.
Guardianship of the Estate Financial: Bank statements, investment records, tax returns, unpaid bills, evidence of fraud or exploitation. Financial management skills, understanding financial concepts, ability to pay bills, make sound financial decisions. Overdrawn accounts, missed payments, unexplained withdrawals, large gifts to strangers, testimony from financial advisors or accountants about mismanagement.
Medical: Cognitive assessments, neuropsychological evaluations, psychiatric reports. Memory, judgment, decision-making, understanding financial consequences. Physician testimony, neurologist report, diagnosis of dementia or Alzheimer's, inability to understand basic financial concepts or make sound financial decisions.
Plenary Guardianship All of the above evidence may be relevant. All areas of impairment affecting personal and financial well-being. Combination of medical, financial, and behavioral evidence demonstrating a comprehensive inability to make decisions in one's best interest.
Least Restrictive Alternatives Evidence of Capacity: Medical/psychological evaluations showing some decision-making ability with support. Specific areas where support is needed (e.g., finances, healthcare). Physician testimony indicating the AIP can understand and make decisions with assistance, documentation of successful use of supported decision-making or power of attorney arrangements.


The judge will also consider the availability of LRAs, and the suitability of the proposed guardian based on several criteria such as their qualifications, experience, relationship with the proposed ward, and overall ability to act in the ward's best interests. Once this is done, the judge will render a decision that either: 

  • Denies the petition: If the petitioner fails to prove that the proposed ward is incapacitated or that guardianship is the least restrictive option, the court will deny the petition, and the individual will retain their autonomy.
  • Orders the utilization of LRAs: If the judge determines that LRAs are appropriate and sufficient to address the individual's needs, the court may order the implementation of specific LRAs, such as appointing a representative payee or establishing a supported decision-making agreement.
  • Approves the petition: If the judge finds the requisite level of incapacity, (which will vary based on jurisdiction, but often required clear and convincing evidence of the incapacity) and concludes that guardianship is necessary, they will grant the petition and issue letters of guardianship. These letters formally appoint the guardian and outline their specific powers and duties, tailored to the ward's individual needs.

Powers and Responsibilities of Guardians

As mentioned above, the type and scope of guardianship granted will be outlined in the letters issued by the court, and may be a guardianship of the person, of the estate, or plenary (which is both combined). 

Guardianships of the person: A guardian of the person is entrusted with decisions that directly impact the ward's day-to-day life and overall quality of life. Their primary focus is on the ward's personal care, health, and living arrangements, and their responsibilities may include:

  • Making informed decisions about medical treatment, including consenting to surgeries, choosing healthcare providers, and managing medications.
  • Determining the most suitable living environment for the ward, whether it be in their own home, with a family member, an assisted living facility, or a nursing home.
  • Ensuring the ward's basic needs are met, such as meals, hygiene, and transportation.
  • Facilitating social engagement and activities that promote the ward's emotional well-being and connection with others.
  • Acting as the ward's voice and advocate, ensuring their rights are protected and their preferences are considered in all decisions.

Guardians of the estate: A guardian of the estate (or conservator) is tasked with managing the ward's financial affairs, and their responsibilities may include:

  • Overseeing the ward's assets, including bank accounts, investments, real estate, and personal property.
  • Paying bills, taxes, and other financial obligations on behalf of the ward.
  • Making prudent investment decisions to protect and grow the ward's assets.
  • Maintaining detailed records of all financial transactions and providing regular accountings to the court.
  • Ensuring that all financial activities comply with applicable laws and regulations.

Guardianship Supervision and Termination

Once a guardianship is established, the court retains oversight over the guardianship, and the guardian is required to submit periodic reports detailing the ward's well-being and the management of their affairs, addressing such matters such as: 

  • Detailed records of financial transactions, including income, expenses, and assets.
  • Updates on the ward’s condition and information about the ward's physical and mental health, living arrangements, and overall quality of life.
  • Reports on any major changes in the ward's circumstances or needs.

Note that while the frequency of these reports varies by jurisdiction, annual reports are common, and that the court may also conduct periodic reviews of the guardianship to assess its ongoing necessity and effectiveness. Furthermore, guardianships can be terminated under various circumstances, such as:

  • If the ward regains the ability to make decisions about their personal or financial affairs, they can petition the court to terminate the guardianship..
  • A guardian may resign from their role with court approval, or the court may remove a guardian who has failed to fulfill their duties or has acted against the ward's best interests.
  • If the circumstances that led to establishing the guardianship change significantly, the court may determine that the guardianship is no longer necessary because the ward's condition improved or LRAs become feasible. 

As you can see, every guardianship case is unique, and the specific laws and procedures can vary from state to state. Consulting with an attorney well-versed in guardianship matters can help you understand your options, navigate the legal requirements, and make informed decisions that prioritize the well-being of your loved one. AAL's directory can connect you with legal professionals who can provide personalized support tailored to your individual needs.

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